Adventure Sports

Why We Play by Eva Holland

Doing what we love, despite the risks

Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer

I understood on some dim, detached level that it was a spectacular sight, but now that I was finally here, standing on the summit of Mount Everest, I just couldn’t summon the energy to care

Unclimbable by Eva Holland

An expedition to the Cirque of the Unclimbables — some of the toughest, most spectacular climbing in the world

The Mountain of Mountains by Kevin Fedarko

The afternoon I stumbled across the human leg bone at the bottom of K2, it was one of those flawless days you almost never see in the Karakoram

Out in the Great Alone by Brian Phillips

The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race pushes participants to the brink on an unforgiving trek to the end of the world

Kashmiri Extremism by Kevin Fedarko

It’s 4:00 a.m., and outside the fog-shrouded windows of the Kashmir Alpine Ski Shop, the Indian village of Gulmarg sleeps in the shadow of a 13,576-foot ridge that looks directly into Pakistan

The Fast Track to Dharma by Michael Paterniti

60 Degrees Straight Down, Mind the Boulders and Avalanches. A postcard from La Grave, France – alpinism’s new lost horizon

Excuse Us While We Kiss The Sky by Matthew Power

By day they work as computer programmers and stock boys and academics. But at night they are urban explorers


Life’s Swell by Susan Orlean

To be a surfer girl in Maui is to be the luckiest of creatures. It means you’re beautiful and tan and ready to rip. It means you’ve caught the perfect dappled wave and are on a ride that can’t possibly end…

The Wave-Maker by William Langewiesche

A 58-year-old maverick’s record-breaking encounter with 85 feet of “Condition Black” water

Off Diamond Head by William Finnegan

To be thirteen, with a surfboard, in Hawaii

Playing Doc’s Games by William Finnegan

On surfing San Francisco (part 2 is here)

Mavericks by Alice Gregory

Life and death surfing

Is That Even a Sport??

The Last American Hero Is Junior Johnson. Yes!
by Tom Wolfe

Ten o’clock Sunday morning in the hills of North Carolina. Cars, miles of cars, in every direction, millions of cars…

The Most Amazing Bowling Story Ever
by Michael J. Mooney

In a bowling alley one night, a man came so close to perfection that it nearly killed him.

Maximum Speed! by Joshua Foer

Over in Germany, water sliding is serious sport.

Horse Racing

The Kentucky Derby Is Decadent and Depraved
by Hunter S. Thompson

I got off the plane around midnight and no one spoke as I crossed the dark runway to the terminal. The air was thick and hot, like wandering into a steam bath…

Gone Like the Wind by Buzz Bissinger

None of them had ever seen a horse like Barbaro: the speed of a rocket, the spirit of a champion in his eyes…

Four Good Legs Between Us by Laura Hillenbrand

A battered little horse named Seabiscuit, that captivated the nation and transcended its sport

Bull Riding

The Ride of Their Lives by Burkhard Bilger

Children prepare for the world’s most dangerous organized sport

America is Bull by Jeanne Marie Laskas

When you get on your bull, you have to, just, be on your bull


What I Talk About When I Talk About Running by Haruki Murakami

Inspirational advice about the importance of motivation, practice and persistence

Moneyball by Michael Lewis

A book-length version of the classic essay The Trading Desk (see above) tells the story of the people behind baseball’s statistical revolution

The Blind Side by Michael Lewis

Another classic that became a film, Lewis fleshes out his great essay The Ballad of Big Mike (see above) with an incisive analysis of the role of football’s unsung heros

Seabiscuit by Laura Hillenbrand

One of those rare books that grabs you regardless of whether you have an interest in the subject matter

The Fight by Norman Mailer

The story of the Rumble in the Jungle as told by one of the greatest journalists in history

Friday Night Lights by H.G. Bissinger

The story of a small town’s obsession with high-school football offers a great window onto a cultural phenomenon



50 Great Articles and Essays about Sport

The best short articles and essays about sports — Interesting sport articles and sports essays by famous authors


We Are Grown Men Playing a Child’s Game
by Gilbert Rogin

The bearded man laughing at his daughter is Bill Russell, the most remarkable basketball player of our time. Sport, however, is one of his lesser interests. Here are his trenchant, often angry observations on today’s Negro-white crisis and his role in it

Shoot the Moon by Susan Orlean

White men in suits follow Felipe Lopez everywhere he goes. They are ubiquitous. They rarely miss one of Felipe’s games or tournaments…

The No-Stats All-Star by Michael Lewis

His greatness is not marked in box scores or at slam-dunk contests, but on the court Shane Battier makes his team better, often much better, and his opponents worse, often much worse.

Jordan’s Moment by David Halberstam

A great profile piece exploring a quintessential moment from the legendary career of basketball’s biggest star.


The Trading Desk by Michael Lewis

For the past four years, working with one of the lowest payrolls in the game, the Oakland A’s have won as many regular-season games as almost any other team. How on earth did they do it?

Baseball for Life by Sara Corbett

People have accepted that it’s O.K. for a talented 7- or 8-year-old gymnast to go away and not see her family at all, but for a baseball player to do anything close to that, it’s like, ‘Oh, my God, that’s terrible!’

The Curious Case of Sidd Finch by George Plimpton

You can hardly see the blur of it as it goes by. As for hitting the thing, frankly, I just don’t think it’s humanly possible


The Ballad of Big Mike by Michael Lewis

Every other high-school football player in America was dying for Lemming to invite him to play in the U.S. Army All-American Bowl. Michael Oher had left his invitation on the table…

Friday Night Lights by Buzz Bissinger

Outside, the August night was cool and serene, with just a wisp of West Texas wind. Inside, there was a sense of excitement and also relief, for the waiting was basically over…

Game Brain by Jeanne Marie Laskas

Let’s say you run a multibillion-dollar football league. And let’s concussions are making your players crazy. What would you do?

G-L-O-R-Y! by Jeanne Marie Laskas

The hot, peppy, underpaid world of the NFL cheerleaders

There’s No Crying at the Pee Wee Super Bowl by Jeanne Marie Laskas

The biggest little game in the world…


Federer as Religious Experience
by David Foster Wallace

The world of top-flight tennis, and arguably its greatest exponent

The String Theory by David Foster Wallace

An obsessive inquiry into the physics and metaphysics of tennis


Usain Bolt, Mutant by Luke Dittrich

What would happen if the fastest man on earth started making an effort?

Is the Fastest Human Ever Already Alive? by Chuck Klosterman

Allow me to spare you the hyperbole: Usain Bolt is fast…

The Fast Life of Oscar Pistorius by Michael Sokolove

Should a double amputee be allowed to race against the world’s best able- bodied athletes, or could his disability offer him an unfair advantage?

Either/Or by Ariel Levy

How world-class sprinter Caster Semenya puts the idea of binary genders into question.


Why Yoga Can Be So Irritating by Sarah Miller

(Although You Should Go Anyway!)

How Yoga Can Wreck Your Body by William J. Broad

Popped ribs, brain injuries, blinding pain. Are the healing rewards worth the risks?


The Istanbul Derby by Spencer Hall

Soccer, fire and a game at the world’s crossroads

The Sea of Crises by Brian Phillips

On sumo, ritual suicide and the death of samurai culture

Triumph Of The Swoosh by Donald Katz

With a keen sense of the power of sports and a genius for mythologizing athletes to help sell sneakers, Nike bestrides the world of sport like a marketing colossus

Why Sports Are for Losers by Matti Taibbi

“There is a dirty truth that professional sports keeps hidden from fans, i.e., guys like you and me who spend winter after winter wondering, What if? And that truth is: Watching sports sucks”


Hoop Dreams

Inside the world of top flight high school basketball

People in Motion

Spellbinding footage of some of the world’s best free runners

Bigger, Faster, Stronger

Muscle, steroids, and the American Dream

Dogtown and Z-Boys

The birth of modern skateboarding, with tons of stunning archive film

Bouncing Cats

How breakdance is helping heal the wounds of civil war in Uganda

sports man

Ping Pong — a popular name for Table Tennis.
Pitch and Putt — like golf, but on shorter holes and only a putter and a wedge are allowed.
Pitton — a net and racquet-based sport played with a hard pickleball paddle and a badminton shuttlecock.
Platform Tennis — a variation of tennis with modified equipment on a much smaller court surrounded on all sides by a fence.
Playboating — a whitewater sport in which athletes on kayaks or canoes perform various moves in a fixed place called the playspot.
Pleasure Driving — a horse and carriage sport judged on a horse’s manners, performance, quality and conformation.
Pocket Billiards — also known as Pool, it is the name for a range of Cue Sports played on a table with six pockets along the rails, into which the main aim is to hit balls into the pockets. There are hundreds of pool games – popular versions include Eight-Ball and Nine-Ball, as well as Ten-Ball, Straight Pool, One-Pocket and Bank Pool.
Poker — a card game that combines gambling, strategy, and skill. The winner of each hand is determined according to the combinations of players’ cards.
Pole Climbing — involves climbing very high wooden poles.
Pole Dancing — participants perform various types of acrobatic moves like spins, climbs, twists and body inversions around a pole.
Pole Vault — an athletics event in which a competitor leaps over a bar using a flexible pole.
Polo (Horse Polo) — a team sport played on horseback in which the objective is to hit a ball into a goal using a long-handled mallet. Variations include Snow Polo, Elephant Polo, Cycle Polo, Yak Polo, Cowboy Polo plus many more.
Polocrosse — an equestrian sport combining the sports of lacrosse and polo.
Pommel Horse — a male artistic gymnastics event in which the gymnast performs routines atop a symbolic horse.
Pond Hockey — a version of ice hockey played on a natural frozen body of water.
Pool — a common name for the cue sport of Pocket Billiards.
Popinjay — a shooting sport with either bows or rifles, in which the bird-like target is suspended from a pole.
Power Hockey — ice hockey played on an electric wheelchair.
Power Boat Racing — ocean-going powerboats race against each other.
Powerchair Football — indoor football for people in wheelchairs.
Powerlifting — tests of strength on three lifts: dead lift, bench press and squat.
Practical shooting — dynamic shooting sport using handguns and moving and shooting over obstacles.
Pradal Serey — a type of kickboxing from Cambodia. Also known as Kun Khmer.
Prizefighting — another name for bare-knuckle boxing.
Pushball — a team sport played with a large ball in which the objective is to push the ball through the opponent’s goalposts.
Q Sports
Qianball — a racket and ball sport developed in China which can be best described as a mix of aspects from tennis and squash.
Quadrathlon — an endurance sports event composed of the four individual disciplines of swimming, kayaking, cycling and running – also called quadriathlon.
Quidditch — the sport invented for the Harry Potter books has been adapted for the real world. See Muggle Quidditch.
Quoits — a traditional target throwing game in which rings are thrown at a target spike, the aim is to get them as close as possible to the target.
R Sports
Racerunning — a track and field racing sport for disabled athletes, in which they use a specially designed tricycle.
Race Walking — competitors attempt to outrace one another without running.
Racketlon — a combination sport, where players compete in the sports of table tennis, tennis, squash, and badminton.
Racquetball — a squash-type game involving hitting a hollow rubber ball using a stringed racket.
Racquets / Rackets — a sport similar to squash.
Raffa Bocce — a variation of bocce played on carpet, plastic balls are rolled or thrown towards a target smaller ball
Rafting — the objective is to navi

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sports club

Naginatajutsu — a Japanese martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive.
Naval Pentathlon — comprises an obstacle race, life-saving swimming race, utility swimming race, seamanship race, and an amphibious cross-country race.
Netball — a team game with seven players on a side, similar to basketball except that players are restricted to certain sections of the court, and a player receiving the ball must stand still until they have passed it to another player.
Newcomb Ball — an early variation of Volleyball, teams throw a ball back and forth until it hits the floor or is mishandled.
Nine-a-side Footy — a mini version of Australian Rules Football, with 3 players each designated as forwards, centers and backs.
Nine-Ball — a version of Pocket Billiards played with nine balls, numbered 1 through 9. A player who legally pockets the nine-ball is the winner. Most professional tournaments are conducted for the nine-ball format of pool.
Nine-Man Football — a variation of American Football for smaller schools.
Nine Pin Bowling — a variation of bowling with only 9 pins set up in a diamond pattern.
Ninjutsu — The traditional Japanese art of the Ninjas – incorporating stealth, camouflage and sabotage, now practiced as a martial art.
Nordic Combined — a Winter Olympics sport in which athletes compete in a combined event of Cross-Country Skiing and Ski Jumping.
Nordic Skiing — a field of competitive skiing that includes all events where the heel of the boot cannot be fixed to the ski (as opposed to Alpine skiing). Includes Cross-Country Skiing, Ski Jumping, and Biathlon, Nordic Combined and Telemark Skiing.
Northern Praying Mantis — a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis.
Novuss — a national sport in Latvia, with similarities to carrom and pocket billiards. Played on a 1-meter square wooden board with pockets in each corner. A small cue stick is used to strike a puck to hit small discs into the pockets.
O Sports
Obstacle Course Racing — an event requiring an athlete to run through a variety of different obstacles.
Ocean Rowing — involves rowing races across entire seas and oceans.
Offroad Boarding — another name for Mountainboarding.
Off-Road Racing — many motor sports have competitions ‘off-road’, meaning on rough terrain.
Oil Wrestling — a form of wrestling called Yağlı Güreş in Turkey, is where the wrestlers cover themselves in oil.
Oină – a Romanian traditional sport, similar in many ways to Baseball and Lapta played outdoors by two teams of 11 players, taking turns either batting or catching.
Okinawan Kobudō — weapon systems of Okinawan martial arts, also known as Ryūkyū Kobujutsu.
One Day International (ODI) — a form of Cricket played in a single day, usually 50 overs per team. An even shorter version is the Twenty20.
One-Pocket — a version of Pocket Billiards where the objective is to pocket all the object balls into a single pocket.
Open Water Swimming — competitive swimming races conducted over various distances (10km at the Olympics) held in rivers, lakes and oceans.
Orienteering — participants find their way to various checkpoints across rough country with the aid of a map and compass, the winner being the one with the lowest elapsed time.
Outdoor Handball — another name for Field Handball.
Outrigger Canoeing — racing using a type of canoe featuring one or more lateral support floats known as outriggers, which are fastened to one or both sides of the main hull.
Over-the-line – a bat-and-ball sport related to baseball and softball with just 3 people per team. Unlike the other sports, the batter and pitcher are on the same team.
Oztag — a form of Tag Rugby
P Sports
Paddle Tennis — a variation of tennis on a smaller court, lower net, using a solid paddle and ball.
Paddleball (1 wall) — a small rubber ball is hit against a single wall with a solid paddle.
Paddleball (4 wall) — like racquetball/squash but played with a solid paddle racket.
Paddleboarding — a person kneels or lies prone on a board and uses their arms and hands to propel themselves through the water.
Padel — a mix of tennis and squash, played on a much smaller court with walls and a solid paddle racket.
Paintball — a skirmish sport in which players compete to eliminate opponents by tagging them with capsules containing water-soluble dye propelled from paintball guns.
Palant — a Polish sport with lots of similarities to modern baseball played using a wooden stick and a rubber ball.
Paleta Frontón — a wall-based racquet sport that originated in Peru.
Palla — a traditional street game played in villages of Italy.
Pankration (Amateur) — A modern version of the Ancient Olympic sport of Pankration.
Parachuting — also known as skydiving, involving jumping from an aircraft with just a parachute.
Para-Climbing — Sport Climbing for disabled athletes.
Para-Cycling — cycle racing events using adaptations for disabled athletes, such as tandem bikes and hand-cycling.
Paragliding — riders using para-gliders perform cross country or acrobatic maneuvers.
Parallel Bars — an artistic gymnastics discipline performed by men which comprises predominantly of swings and vaults with two parallel bars.
Paratriathlon — involves a 750 m swim, a 20 km bike with handcycles, bicycles or tandems with a guide, and a 5 km wheelchair or running race.
Pärk (or Paerk) — an outdoor team sport that originated in Gotland, where players hit or kick the ball to gain field position.
Parkour — activity involving overcoming obstacles in an urban space.
Park Skateboarding — skaters perform tricks in on a course like a familiar skate park containing bowls and pools in a complex combination with ramps and course bends.
Patball — schoolyard game played with hands or head for hitting the ball against a wall.
Pato — a cross between Polo and Basketball played on horseback. It is the national sport of Argentina. A similar sport is Horseball.
Pehlwani — a form of wrestling from South Asia. A win is achieved by pinning the opponent’s shoulders and hips to the ground simultaneously.
Pelota Mixteca — an ancient game similar to tennis without a net, the ball is hit with decorated gloves.
Pencak Silat — a fighting sport from Indonesia which collectively encompasses martial arts of various styles.
Pesäpallo — a Finnish variation of Baseball, the major difference is that the ball is pitched vertically.
Pétanque — a type of boules in which the objective is to throw hollow metal balls towards a small wooden target ball.
Peteca — played by hitting the shuttlecock with your hand over a high net.
Pickleball — a non-contact racket sport that is similar to badminton, tennis, and table tennis.
Picigin — a traditional water sport from Croatia in which the aim is to prevent a small ball from touching the surface of the water.
Pigeon Racing — the objective is for each pigeon to return back to its home as fast as possible.

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sports gala

L Sports
Lacrosse — a team game, originally played by North American Indians, in which the ball is thrown, caught, and carried with a long-handled stick with a piece of shallow netting at one end. Versions include Field Lacrosse, Box Lacrosse, Women’s Lacrosse, Sixes Lacrosse.
Lagori — from Southern India, this game involves a ball and a pile of flat stones. A member of one team throws a soft ball at a pile of stones to knock them over, then tries to restore the pile of stones while the opposing team throws the ball at them (also known as Lingocha).
Land Sailing — racing in three-wheeled vehicles moving across land powered by wind through the use of a sail. Also known as sand yachting or land yachting.
Land Speed Records — in various vehicle classes, competitors attempt to create the fastest time over a fixed distance. Two runs are required in opposite directions within one hour to set a new mark.
Land Windsurfing — similar to traditional Windsurfing though performed on land rather than water, using a four-wheeled deck to travel across the surface. Also known as “Terrasailing”, “street sailing”, “land sailing” and “dirt windsurfing”.
Lapta — a Russian traditional bat and ball game. The aim of the game is to hit a ball, served by a player of the opposite team, with a bat as far as possible, then run across the field, and if possible back again.
Laser Run — four legs of laser pistol shooting followed by an 800m run.
Laser Tag — a skirmish sport in which players attempt to score points by tagging targets, typically with a hand-held infrared-emitting targeting device.
Lawn Bowls — the objective is to roll biased balls so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a “jack” or “kitty”.
Lawn Mower Racing — motorsport where participants use race-modified lawn mowers.
Lead Climbing — climbers attempt to get highest on challenging route on a vertical wall within a pre-determined timeframe.
Legends Car Racing — a racing sport using identical spec vehicles, with bodyshells made of 5/8-scale replicas of American automobiles from the 1930s and 1940s and powered by a Yamaha motorcycle engine.
Lelo Burti — a Georgian folk sport, a full-contact ball game very similar to rugby.
Lethwei — an unarmed Burmese martial art similar to other kickboxing styles from the region.
Letterboxing— an outdoor sport that combines orienteering, art, and puzzle solving. Small weatherproof boxes are hidden in publicly accessible places (like parks) and clues are distributed to find the box. Similar to GeoCaching.
Log Rolling — two challengers attempt to stay on a floating log the longest.
Longboarding — a skateboarding sport in which athletes use a longboard to compete in downhill races.
Long Drive — golf competition in which players attempt to hit the ball the longest distance.
Long Jump — a track and field event where the participant attempts to jump the longest into a sand pit. See also the similar Triple Jump.
Long Track Motorcycle Speedway — a version of motorcycle speedway, but taking place on longer tracks at much higher speeds.
Longue Paume — an outdoor version of the racket sport, jeu de paume, played without a net.
Luge — a Winter Olympic sport in which competitors race down an ice track in a small one- or two-person sled lying supine (face up) and feet-first.
Lumberjack — competitions involving many different events, including log rolling, chopping, timed hot (power) saw and bucksaw cutting, and pole climbing.
M Sports
Mallakhamba — a traditional Indian sport, where athletes perform various types of gymnastics moves and hold various poses on a vertical wooden pole or a rope.
Marathon — a distance running athletics event over 42.2 km.
Marching Band — a large team of participants play musical instruments as they perform various routines while moving around on a huge outdoor field.
Mas Wrestling — participants sit and face each other with their feet braced against a board and each with both hands on a stick. The aim is to pull the other player over to your side.
Matkot — a beach paddle sport from Israel that is very similar to beach tennis. Also called Frescobol.
Metallic Silhouette Shooting — players compete to test their skills by shooting at silhouette metal targets.
Metro Footy — a modified version of Australian football played on a rectangular field, predominantly in the USA.
Middle Distance — a set of track and field running events over distances such as 800m, 1500m, not a sprint and not an endurance race.
Military Pentathlon — a competition involving a shooting phase, obstacle run, obstacle swimming, grenade throwing, and cross-country running.
Mind Sports — a family of sports in which the objective is to test mental strength rather than physical strength. Some may be considered actual sports such as speed cubing, while others not (memory, chess).
Minigolf or Miniature Golf — a game utilizing only the putting aspect of Golf, played on short holes on artificial putting surfaces often with obstacles. Officially called minigolf, but also can be called by the name miniature golf, mini-golf, midget golf, goofy golf, shorties, extreme golf, put-put, crazy golf, adventure golf, mini-putt and many others.
Mini Rugby — a modified version for Rugby Union, to make the sport suitable to be introduced to children.
Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) — a full-contact individual combat sport that includes aspects of several other combat sports and martial arts.
Modern Pentathlon — an Olympic sport that comprises five events: fencing, 200m freestyle swimming, show jumping, and a combined event of pistol shooting and 3200m cross country run.
Mogul Skiing — snow skiers compete on a specially designed downhill course, in which the primary focus is on the technique used for turns, aerial maneuvers, and speed.
Mölkky — players use a wooden pin (also called “mölkky”) to try to knock over wooden pins.
Mongolian Wrestling — a folk wrestling style from the Mongolian region, in which the aim is to get your opponent to touch his upper body, knee or elbow to the ground.
Moscow Broomball — a variation of Broomball, an ice hockey type sport, played in Moscow and only by non-Russians.
Motoball — similar to football, except all players (except goalkeepers) are riding motorcycles, and the ball is much bigger (also called Motorcycle Polo).
Motocross — a form of motorcycle racing held on enclosed off-road circuits which include embankments and jumps. See also Freestyle Motocross.
Motorcycling Road Racing — a motorcycle sport involving racing motorcycles as teams or individuals around a circular track. At the elite level it is in the form of MotoGP racing. Also known as Moto racing and Bike racing.
Motorcycle Gymkhana — a motorcycle time trial sport around cones on a paved area. The winner is the competitor who completes the course in the shortest time. Time penalties are incurred by putting a foot down, hitting a cone, or going outside the designated area. It is similar to car Autocross.
Motorcycle Sidecar Racing — rider and a passenger compete in custom-built vehicles.
Motorcycle Speedway — a Motorsport in which the motorcycles have one gear and no brakes, and race around a circular track. Also commonly known by just Speedway. Variations include Ice Speedway.
Motorcycle Trials — a test of skill on a motorcycle whereby the rider attempts to cover rocky terrain without placing a foot on the ground. The winner is the rider with the least penalty points. Known in the USA as “Observed Trials”.
Motorsports — includes a wide range of sports, each linked with its use of a motor to propel a driver, and all have an element of thrill and danger for the driver and spectator.
Mountain Biking — held on steep and rough terrain, involving jumps, rock gardens, and other obstacles.
Mountain Unicycling — an adventure sport that consists of traversing rough terrain on a unicycle.
Mountainboarding — an action board sport like a snowboard with wheels or a cross-country skateboard. It is also known as Dirtboarding, Offroad Boarding, and All-Terrain Boarding (ATB).
Mountaineering — the sport of mountain climbing.
Mounted Orienteering — participants navigate from start to end through control points, usually on horseback.
Muay Thai — a full-contact fighting sport in which fighters try to defeat their opponents by using different techniques that make use of fists, elbows, knees, and shins.
Mud Bogging — an off-road motorsport that involves driving a vehicle through a muddy course.
Muggle Quidditch — the playable version of the sport of Quidditch invented for the Harry Potter books.
N Sports
Naginatajutsu — a Japanese martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive.
Naval Pentathlon — comprises an obstacle race, life-saving swimming race, utility swimming race, seamanship race, and an amphibious cross-country race.
Netball — a team game with seven

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omplete Sports List
3D Archery — a form of archery in which the goal is to strike targets in the shape of animals at unknown distances.
3×3 Basketball — a variation of basketball played on a half court with just three players in each team.
3×3 Ice Hockey — a variation of ice hockey played on a half rink with just three players on each team.
7-a-side football — Association football for players with cerebral palsy.
Abseiling — an adventure sport where the participants descend a steep formation using a rope. (not really a sport).
Acrobatic Gymnastics — team of gymnasts work together to perform acrobatic moves in combination with dance moves.
Acroski — athletes on snow skis perform various choreographed routines (once called Ski Ballet).
Adventure Racing — an event combining two or more endurance disciplines, such as Orienteering, Cross-Country Running, Mountain Biking, Paddling and Climbing. It is also called Expedition Racing.
Aerials — a freestyle skiing discipline in which athletes ski along a take-off ramp, then perform various in-air tricks.
Aerobatics — sport aerobatics involves aircraft maneuvers such as rolls, loops, stall turns (hammerheads), and tailslides.
Aesthetic Group Gymnastics — a team sport where a large group of gymnasts perform coordinated continuous movements.
the decathlete

Aerobic Gymnastics — another name for Sport Aerobics.
Aeromodeling — activity using remotely controlled flying model aircraft (not really a sport).
Aeronautical Pentathlon — despite the name, the sport has 6 events: shooting, fencing, orienteering, basketball skills, obstacle course and swimming.
AFL Wheelchair — a wheelchair version of the football code from Australia, played between two teams of five players.
AFLX — a new version of Australian Football played on a rectangular field with seven players on each team, created to showcase some of the most thrilling elements of the sport to attract new fans.
Aggressive Inline Skating — Aggressive inline skating is a form of inline skating executed on specially designed inline skates with a focus on grinding and spins.
Aikido — Shodokan Aikido (also called Sport Aikido) is a style of the martial art Aikido that is used for competitions.
Air Hockey — played on an air-hockey table, participants try to hit a puck elevated on a cushion of air into the opponent’s goal.
Air Racing — a sport involving flying airplanes over a fixed course low to the ground.
Airsoft — a skirmish sport in which participants eliminate opponents by hitting them with spherical non-metallic pellets from replica firearms. Similar sports are Laser Tag and Paintball.
All-Terrain Boarding — another name for Mountainboarding.
Alpine Skiing — commonly known as Downhill Skiing, involves racing down snow-covered hills on skis with fixed-heel bindings. There are alpine skiing competitions in disciplines such as slalom, giant slalom, super giant slalom, and downhill.
Alpinism — the sport of mountain climbing.
American Football — a team sport played on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. Each team attempts to advance an oval ball down the field into the end zone by running or passing it. It is also known in some parts of the world (outside of the US) as Gridiron. In the US it is referred to simply as football. Variations include Arena Football, 6-Man Football.
American Handball — players use their hands to hit a small rubber ball against a wall. There are three versions (four-wall handball, three-wall handball and one-wall handball) that can each be played by either two, three or four players. It can be compared to squash without rackets. It is very different from the Olympic sport of (Team) Handball.
Angling — often used to refer to fishing, it is the principal method of sport fishing.
Aquabike — a variation of Triathlon, with no running leg. Athletes swim followed by cycling.
Aquajogging — water running competitions, athletes race in the water while maintaining an upright position.
Aquathlon (1) — an underwater sport where two competitors wearing masks and fins wrestle underwater in an attempt to remove a ribbon from each other’s ankle band. It is also known as Underwater Wrestling.
Aquathlon (2) — a continuous race involving swimming followed by running. It is usually over a shorter distance than the similar Biathle.
Archery — competitive archery involves shooting arrows at a target for accuracy from a set distance or distances. The main forms of archery are Target Archery and Field Archery, and others include Clout Archery, 3D archery, Crossbow Archery, Flight Archery, and Ski Archery.
Arena Football — a variety of American Football (Gridiron), played indoors on a smaller field resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game.
Arena Polo — a minified version of polo that is played on horseback on a field much smaller in size and enclosed by walls on all sides.
Arena Rugby — a variation of Rugby Union, played indoors on a smaller field resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game.
Arm Wrestling — a type of Wrestling where each participant place one elbow on a surface while gripping the other participant’s hand. The aim is to pin the other’s arm onto the surface.
Arnis — the national martial art sport of the Philippines which emphasizes weapon-based fighting.
Artistic Billiards — a Carom Billiards discipline in which players score points for performing 76 preset shots of varying difficulty. It is sometimes called fantasy billiards.
Artistic Cycling — a form of competitive indoor cycling in which athletes perform tricks for points on specialized, fixed-gear bikes in a format similar to ballet or gymnastics.
Artistic Gymnastics — an Olympic sport where gymnasts perform short routines on different apparatus, such as the Vault, Floor (men and women), Pommel Horse, Rings, Parallel Bars, High Bar (men), and Uneven Bars, Balance Beam (women).
Artistic Pool — a trick shot competition on a pocket billiards table in which players score points for performing 56 preset shots of varying difficulty.
Artistic Roller Skating — is a sport that consists of a number of events (Figures, Dance, Freestyle and Precision Teams) usually accomplished on quad skates, though sometimes inline skates are used.
Association Croquet — an advanced game of Croquet played at the international level involving four balls teamed in pairs, with both balls going through every hoop for one pair to win.
Association Football — more commonly known as Football or Soccer. It is the world’s most popular sport, played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. The game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object is to score by using any part of the body except the arms and hands to get the ball into the opposing goal.
Athletics — commonly known as Track and Field, though it is an umbrella sport, which in addition to Track and Field it also comprises Cross Country Running, Road Running and Racewalking.
Australian Football — a fast-paced football code from Australia, played between two teams of eighteen players on a large oval field. Six points are scored by kicking the ball between two tall goalposts, or one point for passing the ball on either side of these. Alternative names are Australian Football, Aussie Rules, AFL, Australian Rules Football.
Australian Handball — similar to Squash, though played without a racquet.
Auto Race — a Japanese motorcycle speedway competition which is held on tarmac tracks, predominantly a gambling sport.
Auto Racing — a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. There are numerous different categories including Formula 1, Touring Car, Rally Cars, Drag Racing, Stock Car Racing, Vintage Racing. Also known as Car Racing, Motor Racing or Automobile Racing.
Autocross — a type of Auto Racing in which drivers navigate one at a time through a defined course on either a sealed or an unsealed surface in the shortest time. See also the motorcycle version, Motorcycle Gymkhana.
Autograss — a type of Auto Racing on natural surfaces such as grass or mud, usually held on quarter-mile oval tracks.
Autospeedway — a motorsport similar to motorcycle speedway, but with cars.
Axe Throwing — competitors throw axes at a circular target.
B Sports
Backstroke — a swimming stroke performed on the back with the arms lifted alternately out of the water in a backward circular motion and the legs extended and kicking.
Badminton — an indoor game with rackets in which a shuttlecock is hit back and forth across a net.
Balance Beam — a female Olympic Games gymnastics event in which a gymnast balances on a narrow horizontal bar raised off the floor, while performing exercises.
Balkline — a Carom Billiards discipline. A point is scored each time a player’s cue ball makes contact with both object balls on a single stroke. It is played on a pocketless table that is divided by balklines on the cloth marking playing regions. Its precursor was a game called Straight Rail.
Ball Badminton — a racket game native to India, played with a yellow ball made of wool, with similarities to Badminton.
Ball Hockey — a variation of Ice Hockey, a lot like Street Hockey, in which the game is played on foot on a non-ice surface, and a ball is used instead of a hockey puck.
Ballooning — competitive hot air ballooning is a test of accuracy, not speed. The aim is to fly as close as possible to a target and drop a weighted marker.
Bandy — a team sport played on ice using sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team’s goal, a precursor to ice hockey. A variation is Rink Bandy.
Banger Racing — racing event which is done on a dirt track using scrap cars.
Banzai Skydiving — a form of skydiving in which the diver throws their parachute out the airplane door, waits and then jumps after it.
Barefoot Skiing — involves skiing barefoot on water without the use of water skis.
Bare-knuckle boxing — two individuals participate to fight against each other without using boxing gloves or any other type of padding on their hands. Also called Fisticuffs.
Barrel Racing — a rodeo event where participants and horses complete a clover-leaf pattern around barrels.
Baseball — a bat and ball game in which the aim is to hit the ball and score runs by running around four bases.
BASE Jumping — involves parachuting from a structure or cliff, with competitions based on landing accuracy.
Basketball — players attempt to shoot the ball through the hoop on the opponent’s court, moving the ball by throwing and dribbling.
basketball gamebasketball game
Basque Pelota — a variety of court sports that involve hitting a ball against a wall using the hand, a racket, a wooden bat or a basket. Other forms include Pala Corta, Rubber-paleta, Paleta-Leather, Xare, Cesta Punta, Frontenis, Hand-Pelota, Valencian Pilota, Valencian Frontó. Jai Alai is a variety of Basque Pelota.
Basse — a bag ball game from Norway in which the ball is kept from landing in the player’s area, using any part of the body except the hands.
Bat-and-Trap — an old English bat and ball game, in which a ball is projected into the air out of a trap using a bat, and then hit between posts 21 feet away.
Baton Twirling — a metal rod called a baton, is manipulated, while simultaneously making coordinated dance moves.
Bavarian Curling — another name for Ice Stock Sport.
Beach Basketball — a version of basketball played on sand with two teams of three players.
Beach Flags — a surf lifesaving sport in which competitors race in the sand to collect a flag.
Beach Golf — a simplified version of golf played on sand with a polyurethane foam ball.
Beach Handball — a variation of Team Handball, played on sand instead of indoors. This sport is sometimes called Sandball.
Beach Netball — netball played in the sand on a half court.
Beach Polo — polo on horseback though played on a sand field with sideboards so the ball is always in play.
Beach Rugby — a version of rugby union played on sand.
Beach Sambo — a modified version of sambo played on the sand, with bouts lasting three minutes, without penalties and mat wrestling.
Beach Soccer — similar to association football but played on a beach or sand.
Beach Tennis — a sport which has elements from tennis and volleyball, and played on the beach.
Beach Volleyball — a version of Volleyball played on sand with teams of two players, in which a ball is hit by hand over a high net, the aim being to score points by making the ball reach the ground on the opponent’s side of the court.
Beach Water Polo — an open water version of Water Polo played on a smaller field with four players per team.
Beach Woodball — a version of Woodball played on sand that involves using a mallet to pass a ball through gates.
Beach Wrestling — a standing up position style of wrestling conducted on beach sand.
Behcup — similar to putting in golf, though the balls are putted into a small goal and not into a hole.
Beikou Tarkbei (also called Daur Hockey) — a team sport unique to the Daur ethnic group in Inner Mongolia, that has a lot of similarities to field hockey.
Belt Wrestling — the aim is to knock down the opponent by grappling with their belt.
Benchpress — the barbell bench press is one of three lifts in the sport of powerlifting. Participants lie on their back holding the weight on both hands, push it upwards, and then lower the weight again to the chest level.
Benchrest Shooting — a shooting sport where the participant shoots with a rifle at the bench.
Biathle — consist of swimming and running as part of a single race. It is usually over a shorter distance than the similar Aquathlon.
Biathlon — a combination of cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.
Bicycle Motocross (BMX) — races on BMX bicycles.
Bicycle Polo — similar to Polo, though played on bicycles instead of horses.
Big Wave Surfing — experienced surfers paddle into or are towed onto waves that are at least 20 feet high.
Bikejoring — a single dog or a team of harnessed dogs pull along a rider on a bike.
Billiards — billiards is the historical umbrella term for a range of cue sports, though in some countries it refers to the specific game of English Billiards.
Biribol — an aquatic version of volleyball developed in Brazil.
Blind Cricket — a modified version of cricket with a larger ball with bells inside which is designed to be played by blind athletes.
Blind Football — 5-a-side Association football for athletes with a visual impairment.
Boardercross — a snowboard competition on a course similar to motocross. Also called Snowboard Cross.
Bobsleigh — winter sport on a sled making timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, ice tracks.
Bocce — is part of the boules sport family, similar to bowls and pétanque a ball is thrown as close as possible to a smaller ‘jack’.
Boccia — a ball sport similar to bocce, bowls, and pétanque for athletes with physical disabilities.
Bodyboarding — a water sport in which the surfer stands or lays on a short board in the surf.
Bodybuilding — participants show their developed muscular build through poses, and are judged based on muscularity, conditioning, and symmetry.
Bodyflight — an acrobatic sport involving skydiving or a vertical tunnel to perform maneuvers while in the air.
Bolas Criollas — a traditional Venezuelan team sport like bocce and pétanque in which players throw a set of balls as close as possible to the small target ball.
Boli Khela — a form of wrestling that is practiced in Bangladesh and India.
Boomerang Throwing — competitions involving throwing and catching boomerangs.
Borden Ball — see Handball.
Bossaball — played on an inflatable court with trampolines on each side of the net.
Boßeln — a sport similar to the field style of Klootschieten played in Germany.
Bouldering — a type of sport rock climbing in which competitors attempt to climb a series of fixed routes of increasing difficulty.
Boules — a collective name for a wide range of sports in which the objective is to throw or roll heavy balls as close as possible to a small target ball.
Bowling — a general term of a large range of sports in which the player rolls a ball to knock down objects. The most common variation is Tenpin Bowling.
Bowls — commonly refers to Lawn Bowls. For other types of bowls sports, see Bowling.
Box lacrosse — a version of lacrosse that is played in a smaller indoor arena (box), with six players in each team.
Boxing — a combat sport in which two players throw punches at each other.
Brännboll — a Scandinavian game that has similarities to rounders, but with no pitcher.
Brazilian Jiu-jitsu — a combat sport from Brazil based on ground fighting and submission holds, developed from judo and jujutsu.
Breakdancing — an athletic style of street dance.
Breaststroke — one of the major swimming strokes, performed with the swimmer with his chest forward and facing towards to bottom of the pool.
Bridge — a card game that is played by four players, playing in two competing partnerships. Players score points based on the number of tricks achieved.
British Baseball — a bat-and-ball game played in Wales and England similar to rounders.
Broomball — a game like ice hockey played with a broom.
Bull Fighting — involves one or more bulls that are being fought in a bullring.
Bull Riding — a Rodeo Sport, that involves a rider getting on a large bull and attempting to stay mounted while the animal attempts to buck them off.
Bunnock — a kind of skittles game that is played with bones (commonly known as “Game of Bones”).Butterfly stroke — one of the major swimming stroke styles, swum on the breast, with both arms moving simultaneously, accompanied by a “dolphin kick”.
Buzkashi — a Central Asian sport like polo in which riders on horses attempt to drag a goat carcass toward the goal. There is a variant known as kokpar which is quite similar.
e-Sports — competitive form of playing computer games (gaming).
Eton Fives — a handball sport derived from the English sport Fives.
European (Team) Handball — another name for the sport of Handball.
Eventing — riders compete in three types of races, dressage, cross-country and show jumping, in a single competition.
Expedition racing — an endurance event combining two or more disciplines. More commonly called Adventure Racing.
F Sports
Fast Pitch Softball — the competitive form of softball, where the pitcher’s arm rotates 360 degrees around the shoulder until the ball is released from the hand.
Fast5 — a variation of netball, formerly known as

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The Australian, who was released from isolation on Thursday, qualified only 18th in the session at the Sakhir circuit and ahead of Aston Martin’s Lance Stroll and Williams’ Nicholas Latifi.

“I think we just saw the result of everything that happened in the last seven, eight days,” team boss Andreas Seidl told Sky Sports television.

“I think he was on the back foot from the beginning going into this weekend with missing out on the test last week, then he lost additional laps yesterday with the water leak that we had and therefore it was always a difficult challenge for him today.

“In addition, we just struggled really all weekend so far here with the pace of the car. I think also that’s a result from all the fire-fighting we’ve had to do in the seven or eight days.

“We simply have to accept it and move on.”

Ricciardo’s team mate Lando Norris, who suffered brake problems in testing last week, made it through to the second phase of qualifying.

Seidl said the competition, in Formula One’s new era with a major rules revamp, was unbelievably tight but hoped McLaren could still score points on Sunday.

The Woking-based team finished fourth last season, with Ricciardo leading a one-team at the Italian Grand Prix for McLaren’s first win since 2012.

Hertha Berlin cruised past Hoffenheim 3-0 on Saturday to end a nine-game winless run in the Bundesliga and revive their hopes of surviving a relegation battle, but new coach Felix Magath was absent with a Covid-19 infection.

Coached by new assistant coach Mark Fotheringham on his Bundesliga debut, Hertha were dominant throughout and went in front with a Niklas Stark header from a Marvin Plattenhardt free kick.

Two more Plattenhardt set pieces led to goals through Ishak Belfodil in the 63rd and Lucas Tousart 11 minutes later to seal their first win in 2022 – and Hoffenheim’s first loss in six league matches.

Victory lifted Hertha, who brought in veteran coach Magath in this week until the end of the season, off the bottom spots and into the relegation playoff place in 16th on 26 points.

Hoffenheim stayed in sixth place on 44 in a blow to their Champions League hopes.

Fifa has sent medical supplies to the Ukrainian Football Association (UAF) and allocated $1 million to the Fifa Foundation for humanitarian aid in Ukraine, soccer’s world governing body said on Saturday.

More than 3.3 million refugees have already fled Ukraine through its western border, with around 2 more million displaced inside the country following Russia’s February 24 invasion.

The World Health Organisation said on Thursday it had verified 43 attacks on healthcare facilities in Ukraine that had killed 12 people and injured dozens including health workers.

“Following a request from the UAF, an initial shipment of first-aid medical kits has already been transported by road to Ukraine to meet the most urgent needs,” Fifa said in a statement.

“In total, $1 million has been made available to the Fifa Foundation so that it can respond to the growing humanitarian situation in Ukraine and the region. This work is being carried out in collaboration with the football community.”

Earlier this week, Fifa amended its Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players (RSTP) to allow Ukrainian soccer players to be registered outside of a transfer window. Read full story

Fifa also said it would open a special transfer window for foreign players stranded in Russia. It has suspended Russia’s national teams and clubs from international football.

Barcelona coach Xavi Hernandez wants his team to make a statement at Santiago Bernabeu Stadium on Sunday, when they will face LaLiga leaders and bitter rivals Real Madrid in a much-anticipated Clasico.

The former Spain midfielder thinks the game is the perfect situation to show what Barca can do, after recovering from a difficult start to the season.

“It’s a litmus test to show how far we’ve come,” Xavi told a news conference on Saturday, adding that there was no need for any extra motivation when facing their fierce rivals.

“It is a spectacular setting to play a great game and show that we are in great form. We have grown as a team. We have to show personality and try to impose our game model.”

Both Real and Barca are on four-game winning streaks and are playing with a lot of confidence. But Real, with 66 points from 28 games, have a 10-point advantage over second-placed Sevilla and are 15 ahead of Barca in third.

With 11 matches to play, Xavi thinks making a late run for the title looks “remote, complicated and difficult”. But Sunday’s encounter will give him a chance to see how much his team have progressed since his arrival in mid-November.

“If we have to label a team as a favourite, it is Real Madrid, they are the leaders and in a great moment, but we are also going through a great momentum,” Xavi said.

“It is a great opportunity to change history and a win would greatly support what we are working on. We have to be brave, try to impose our style, and be calm.”

Barca had fallen to ninth in the table when Ronald Koeman was fired, but Xavi has revitalised them and they are unbeaten since their extra-time defeat by Athletic Bilbao in the Copa del Rey on January 20, having scored 20 goals in their last six league games.

They will face a Real team that will be missing their star striker and LaLiga’s top scorer, Karim Benzema, who is recovering from a calf injury.

“Benzema has been playing for two or three years as one of the best forwards in the world. He is a very important loss for them but for us it doesn’t change anything,” Xavi said.


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Advance Java

What is Advanced Java, exactly?
The dictionary definition of advance is forward movement, development, or improvement, while the definition of improve is something that improves something. Overall, we must strengthen our fundamental understanding in order to master that particular field.


Core Java (J2SE) and Advanced Java are the two sections of the Java language (JEE). The principles of the Java programming language (data types, functions, operators, loops, threads, exception handling, and so on) are covered in the core Java section. It’s used to create general-purpose software. Advanced Java, on the other hand, includes standard principles like database connectivity, networking, Servlet, web services, and so on. In this section, we’ll look at what advance Java is, what it can do for you, what it can do for you, what it can do for you, what it can do for you, what it can do for you, what it can do for you, what it can do for

Java is more advanced.
It is a Java programming language feature. It is a web-based, network-centric, or enterprise application development technology or version of Java that is specifically designed for developing web-based, network-centric, or enterprise applications. It contains ideas such as Servlet.

, and JSP


, Programming using sockets

, and so on It is a domain-specific specialty.


The majority of advanced Java programmed have a two-tier architecture, i.e. Client and Server. All advanced Java applications that operate on the server can be classified as such.




Why should Java be improved?

It reduces the complexity of developing a multi-tier application.

The API between components and the application server container is standardized.

The framework services are provided by the JEE application server and containers.

Advantages of Advanced Java
Network centricity, process simplification, and a futuristic imaging standard are the four primary advantages of advanced Java.

JEE (advanced Java) includes modules that help you grasp the Client-Server architecture for web-based applications.
We can also work with Apache Tomcat and Glassfish, which are web and application servers. We can learn how the HTTP protocol works by using these servers. It’s not possible in core Java.
If you’re working with trade technologies like Hadoop, cloud-native, or data science, you’ll also need to know advanced Java.
It provides a set of services, APIs, and protocols that give the capability required to construct multi-tiered and web-based applications.
Spring, Hibernate, and Struts are examples of advanced Java frameworks.


What exactly are Servlets?

What options do they have? What is the purpose of them?

What does a Servlet look like in code?


Differences between GET and POST requests

Lifecycle of a Servlet

Servlet Context and Servlet Config are two types of servlet configuration.

Requests are forwarded and redirected.

4. Session Control


What exactly is a session?

Why is it necessary?

How can I schedule a session?

Information about the session is passed back and forth between the client and the server.

Cookies and rewriting are two techniques for transferring session information.

How to Terminate a Session

JSPs (Java Server Pages)


The importance of JSPs and an introduction to JSPs

HTML tags for beginners

Lifecycle of a JSP

Elements in JSP

The importance of the above elements and their integration into the JSP Lifecycle
In JSP, what are directives?
Include directives on the page
JSP Tag Library Directive No. 7

The principles of the JSP Standard Actions Expression Language (JSTL) and how to use it
Custom Tag Library is Required
Implementation of a Custom Tag Library
Framework for Struts (version 2.x)
1. MVC Fundamentals

What exactly is MVC?
Types 1 and 2 of MVC architecture
What is the purpose of the Struts framework?
Overview of Struts 1
Comparison of Struts 1 and Struts 2
Struts 2 Architecture is the second version of the Struts framework.

The following components are explained in the architecture diagram:
Model, Views, and Controller Interceptors in the Struts Framework
Classes for models and actions
OGNL Value Stack
Configuration overview; framework and application architecture
Approaches to configuring Declarative and Annotations
3. Initialization of Struts 2 and the first Action class

JAR files can be downloaded



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